|Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Dec;39(24):4798-803. |
|[Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].[Pubmed: 25898581]|
|To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of Aconine alkaloids (mesAconine, Aconine and hypAconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, Aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking.
Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.
|Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2016 Feb; 37(2): 255–263. |
|Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression.[Pubmed: 26592521]|
|Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of Aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of Aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.
Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, Aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion.
These findings suggest that Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP.