ChemFaces is a professional high-purity natural products manufacturer.
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More articles cited ChemFaces products.
Pharmacogn Mag.2015 Jul-Sep.J. of The Korean Society of Food CultureApr.2017;US20170000760 A1Jan 5, 2017Front Pharmacol. 2017 Apr 25;Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017:1583185
Nutrients.2017 Dec 29;J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Jan 20;Badan Litbangkes Kemenkes RINo 4 (2016)Biofactors.2017 Oct 24.University of Limpopo2016
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Dec 21;Int. Conference on Med. Sci. and Bio.2017;Korean J. of Food Sci. and TechApril 2016Int J Mol Sci. 2014 May 13;15(5):8443-57.
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||Ginsenoside compound K (C-K) is a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has long been used to treat against the development of cancer, inflammation, allergies, and diabetes; C-K acts as a unique HUVEC migration inhibitor by regulating MMP expression, as well as the activity of SPHK1 and its related sphingolipid metabolites. C-K exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by reducing iNOS and COX-2, C-K exhibits an inhibition against the activity of CYP2C9 and CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes with IC50s of 32.0±3.6 μM and 63.6±4.2 μM, respectively. C-K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes. |
||NO | MMP(e.g.TIMP) | mTOR | Beta Amyloid | NF-kB | p65 | Caspase | CYP2C9 | CYP2A6 | NOS | COX|
|Fitoterapia. 2015 Jan;100:208-20. |
|A review of biotransformation and pharmacology of ginsenoside compound K.[Pubmed: 25449425]|
|As an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, Ginsenoside Compound K (20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, CK) is a major deglycosylated metabolite form of ginsenosides which is absorbed into the systemic circulation. And it has demonstrated such diverse intriguing biological properties as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammation, antiallergic, anti-diabetic, anti-angiogenesis, anti-aging, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. The present review shall summarize recent studies on various biotransformation and pharmacological activities of CK.|
|Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(5):428-33. |
|Ginsenoside compound K attenuates metastatic growth of hepatocellular carcinoma, which is associated with the translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9.[Pubmed: 20979019 ]|
|The intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponin, Ginsenoside Compound K (CK), has various chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities, including anti-tumor activity. However, the functional mechanisms through which CK attenuates metastatic growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Here, using multiple IN VITRO and IN VIVO models, we reported that CK strongly attenuated colony formation, adhesion, and invasion of HCC cells IN VITRO and dramatically inhibited spontaneous HCC metastatic growth IN VIVO. At the molecular level, immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis confirmed that inhibition of metastatic growth of HCC induced by CK treatment caused a time-dependent decrease in nuclear NF- κB p65 and a concomitant increase in cytosolic NF- κB p65, indicating that CK suppressed the activation of the NF- κB pathway. Meanwhile, our study showed that the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase2/9 (MMP2/9) expression caused by CK treatment was associated with NF- κB p65 nuclear export.
Taken together, our results not only revealed that NF- κB p65 nuclear export and the reduction of MMP2/9 expression were associated with the metastatic inhibition induced by CK, but also suggested that CK may become a potential cytotoxic drug in the prevention and treatment of HCC.
Ginsenoside Compound K Description
||The roots of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey.
||DMSO, Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.
||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.
Recent ChemFaces New Products and Compounds
Recently, ChemFaces products have been cited in many studies from excellent and top scientific journals
Cell. 2018 Jan 11;172(1-2):249-261.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.12.019.PMID: 29328914
Mol Cell. 2017 Nov 16;68(4):673-685.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.10.022.PMID: 29149595
Scientific Reports 2017 Dec 11;7(1):17332.doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17427-6.PMID: 29230013
Molecules. 2017 Oct 27;22(11). pii: E1829.doi: 10.3390/molecules22111829.PMID: 29077044
J Cell Biochem. 2018 Feb;119(2):2231-2239.doi: 10.1002/jcb.26385. PMID: 28857247
Phytomedicine. 2018 Feb 1;40:37-47. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.030.PMID: 29496173
Calculate Dilution Ratios(Only for Reference)
* Note: If you are in the process of experiment, it's need to make the dilution ratios of the samples. The dilution data of the sheet for your reference. Normally, it's can get a better solubility within lower of Concentrations.
|Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Nov 4;112:359-66. |
|Ginsenoside compound K-bearing glycol chitosan conjugates: synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro biological studies.[Pubmed: 25129755]|
|There is still an argument about ginseng-prescription drug interactions.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
To evaluate the influence on cytochrome P450 (P450) activities of ginseng in the present study, the influence on P450 activities of naturally occurring ginsenosides and their degradation products in human gut lumen was assayed by using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYP3A4. The results showed that the naturally occurring ginsenosides exhibited no inhibition or weak inhibition against human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2A6, or CYP1A2 activities; however, their main intestinal metabolites demonstrated a wide range of inhibition of the P450-mediated metabolism. There was no mechanism-based inhibition found on these P450 isoforms. It is noteworthy that Ginsenoside Compound K, protopanaxadiol (Ppd), and protopanaxatriol (Ppt) all exhibited moderate inhibition against CYP2C9 activity, and Ppd and Ppt also exhibited potent competitive inhibition against CYP3A4 activity.
We suggest that after oral administration, naturally occurring ginsenosides might influence hepatic P450 activity in vivo via their intestinal metabolites.
|Exp Ther Med. 2014 Oct;8(4):1271-1274. |
|Ginsenoside compound K promotes β-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.[Pubmed: 25187838]|
|The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Ginsenoside Compound K on β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Aβ degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular Aβ clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for Aβ detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of Aβ and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy.
In conclusion, compound K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes.
|Arch Pharm Res. 2014 Sep;37(9):1183-92. |
|Ginsenoside compound K inhibits angiogenesis via regulation of sphingosine kinase-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.[Pubmed: 24687256]|
|Ginsenoside Compound K (CK) is a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), has long been used to treat against the development of cancer, inflammation, allergies, and diabetes.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
This study examined the anti-angiogenic properties of Ginsenoside Compound K against sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced cell migration via regulation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Studies on S1P-induced cell migration, expression of SPHK1 and MMPs and analysis of sphingolipid metabolites by LC-MS/MS were examined after the treatment of Ginsenoside Compound K (2.5, 5, 10 μg/mL) in HUVEC. S1P produced by SPHK1 is also involved in cell growth, migration, and protection of apoptosis; therefore, we sought to investigate whether ginsenosides are able to regulate SPHK1. For this purpose, we developed an inhibitory assay of SPHK1 activity and an analytical method for detection of S1P and other sphingolipid metabolites in HUVEC. Ginsenoside Ginsenoside Compound K inhibited 100 nM S1P-induced cell migrations in a dose-dependent manner. Among tested ginsenosides, Ginsenoside Compound K exclusively inhibited S1P production, SPHK1 activity and SPHK1 expression in HUVEC, whereas expression of the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids, sphingosine and ceramide, was increased in response to Ginsenoside Compound K. The major subspecies of the increased ceramide was C24:0-ceramide. Ginsenoside Compound K also disrupted the sphingolipid rheostat, which ultimately influences cell fate, and dose-dependently inhibited HUVEC migration by reducing expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Ginsenoside Ginsenoside Compound K acts as a unique HUVEC migration inhibitor by regulating MMP expression, as well as the activity of SPHK1 and its related sphingolipid metabolites.