|Source:||The herbs of Digitalis lanata|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Digoxin is widely used in the treatment of various heart conditions, namely atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and sometimes heart failure that cannot be controlled by other medication.
2. Digoxin and other cardiac glycosides can inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)α synthesis and block tumor growth.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.2805 mL||6.4025 mL||12.8051 mL||25.6102 mL||32.0127 mL|
|5 mM||0.2561 mL||1.2805 mL||2.561 mL||5.122 mL||6.4025 mL|
|10 mM||0.1281 mL||0.6403 mL||1.2805 mL||2.561 mL||3.2013 mL|
|50 mM||0.0256 mL||0.1281 mL||0.2561 mL||0.5122 mL||0.6403 mL|
|100 mM||0.0128 mL||0.064 mL||0.1281 mL||0.2561 mL||0.3201 mL|
Lancet. 2015 Jun 13;385(9985):2363-70.
|Digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation and adverse cardiovascular outcomes: a retrospective analysis of the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in[Pubmed: 25749644]|
|BACKGROUND: Digoxin is a widely used drug for ventricular rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), despite a scarcity of randomised trial data. We studied the use and outcomes of Digoxin in patients in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF). METHODS: For this retrospective analysis, we included and classified patients from ROCKET AF on the basis of Digoxin use at baseline and during the study. Patients in ROCKET AF were recruited from 45 countries and had AF and risk factors putting them at moderate-to-high risk of stroke, with or without heart failure. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for baseline characteristics and drugs to investigate the association of Digoxin with all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death. ROCKET AF was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00403767. INTERPRETATION: Digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. This association was independent of other measured prognostic factors, and although residual confounding could account for these results, these data show the possibility of Digoxin having these effects. A randomised trial of Digoxin in treatment of AF patients with and without heart failure is needed.|
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Feb;8(1):49-58.
|Digoxin and risk of death in adults with atrial fibrillation: the ATRIA-CVRN study.[Pubmed: 25414270]|
|BACKGROUND: Digoxin remains commonly used for rate control in atrial fibrillation, but limited data exist supporting this practice and some studies have shown an association with adverse outcomes. We examined the independent association between Digoxin and risks of death and hospitalization in adults with incident atrial fibrillation and no heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14,787 age, sex, and high-dimensional propensity score-matched adults with incident atrial fibrillation and no previous heart failure or Digoxin use in the AnTicoagulation and Risk factors In Atrial fibrillation-Cardiovascular Research Network (ATRIA-CVRN) study within Kaiser Permanente Northern and Southern California. We examined the independent association between newly initiated Digoxin and the risks of death and hospitalization using extended Cox regression. During a median 1.17 (interquartile range, 0.49-1.97) years of follow-up among matched patients with atrial fibrillation, incident Digoxin use was associated with higher rates of death (8.3 versus 4.9 per 100 person-years; P<0.001) and hospitalization (60.1 versus 37.2 per 100 person-years; P<0.001). Incident Digoxin use was independently associated with a 71% higher risk of death CONCLUSIONS: In adults with atrial fibrillation, Digoxin use was independently associated with higher risks of death and hospitalization. Given other available rate control options, Digoxin should be used with caution in the management of atrial fibrillation.|
Am J Cardiol. 2015 Apr 1;115(7):901-6.
|Meta-analysis of digoxin use and risk of mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation.[Pubmed: 25660972]|
|There is an ongoing debate on the safety of Digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). To address this issue, the investigators assembled a synthesis of the available evidence on the relation between Digoxin and all-cause mortality in patients with AF. PubMed and the Embase database were systematically searched to identify all eligible studies examining the association between Digoxin use and the mortality risk in AF. Overall hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven observational studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, 5 of which additionally used propensity score matching for statistical adjustment. In total, 318,191 patients were followed up for a mean of 2.8 years. Overall, Digoxin use was associated with a 21% increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.30). Sensitivity analyses found the results to be robust. In the propensity score-matched AF patients, Digoxin use was associated with a 17% greater risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.22). When the AF cohort was grouped into patients with and without heart failure, the use of Digoxin was associated with an increase in mortality in patients with and those without heart failure, and no significant heterogeneity was seen between the groups (p >0.10). In conclusion, the results suggest that Digoxin use was associated with a greater risk for mortality in patients with AF, regardless of concomitant heart failure. A well-powered randomized trial is necessary to reveal the true effect of Digoxin.|
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 16;105(50):19579-86.
|Digoxin and other cardiac glycosides inhibit HIF-1alpha synthesis and block tumor growth.[Pubmed: 19020076 ]|
|A library of drugs that are in clinical trials or use was screened for inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Twenty drugs inhibited HIF-1-dependent gene transcription by >88% at a concentration of 0.4 microM. Eleven of these drugs were cardiac glycosides, including Digoxin, ouabain, and proscillaridin A, which inhibited HIF-1alpha protein synthesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in cancer cells. Digoxin administration increased latency and decreased growth of tumor xenografts, whereas treatment of established tumors resulted in growth arrest within one week. Enforced expression of HIF-1alpha by transfection was not inhibited by Digoxin, and xenografts derived from these cells were resistant to the anti-tumor effects of Digoxin, demonstrating that HIF-1 is a critical target of Digoxin for cancer therapy.|