|Source:||The leaves of Ginkgo biloba L.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Ginkgolic acid C15:1 can significantly inhibit the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and B. amyloliquefaciens proteins, it presents significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria but generally does not affect the growth of Gram-negative bacteria.
2. Ginkgolic acid C15:1 can suppress lung cancer invasion and migration through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds to control the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells.
3. Gingkgolic acid C15:1 has strong molluscicidal activity.
4. Ginkgolic acid C13:0 and C15:1 are 100% effective inhibition against Pseudodactylogyrus at the concentration of 2.5 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, with ED50 values of 0.72 mg/Land 2.88 mg/L, respectively, they can be explored as plant-derived antiparasitic for the control of Pseudodactylogyrus.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.886 mL||14.43 mL||28.86 mL||57.7201 mL||72.1501 mL|
|5 mM||0.5772 mL||2.886 mL||5.772 mL||11.544 mL||14.43 mL|
|10 mM||0.2886 mL||1.443 mL||2.886 mL||5.772 mL||7.215 mL|
|50 mM||0.0577 mL||0.2886 mL||0.5772 mL||1.1544 mL||1.443 mL|
|100 mM||0.0289 mL||0.1443 mL||0.2886 mL||0.5772 mL||0.7215 mL|
Int J Food Microbiol. 2014 Mar 17;174:47-55.
|Ginkgolic acids and Ginkgo biloba extract inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.[Pubmed: 24457153]|
|Infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a worldwide problem, and there is no effective therapy. Biofilm formation is closely related to EHEC infection and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiofilm screening of 560 purified phytochemicals against EHEC showed that Ginkgolic acid C15:1 and ginkgolic acid C17:1 at 5μg/ml and Ginkgo biloba extract at 100μg/ml significantly inhibited EHEC biofilm formation on the surfaces of polystyrene and glass, and on nylon membranes. Importantly, at their working concentrations, ginkgolic acids and G. biloba extract did not affect bacterial growth. Transcriptional analyses showed that Ginkgolic acid C15:1 repressed curli genes and prophage genes in EHEC, and these findings were in-line with reduced fimbriae production and biofilm reductions. Interestingly, ginkgolic acids and G. biloba extract did not inhibit the biofilm formation of a commensal E. coli K-12 strain. In addition, ginkgolic acids and G. biloba extract inhibited the biofilm formation of three Staphylococcus aureus strains. The findings of this study suggest that plant secondary metabolites represent an important resource for biofilm inhibitors.|
BMC Biotechnol. 2017; 17: 5.
|The antibacterial activity and mechanism of ginkgolic acid C15:1.[Pubmed: 28088196]|
|We speculated that Ginkgolic acid C15:1(GA (C15:1)) achieved its antibacterial effect through inhibiting the protein activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. GA (C15:1) could not penetrate Gram-negative bacteria in large amounts, and the lipid soluble components in the bacterial cell wall could intercept GA (C15:1), which was one of the primary reasons that GA (C15:1) did not have a significant antibacterial effect on Gram-negative bacteria.|
J Cell Physiol. 2017 Feb;232(2):346-354.
|Ginkgolic Acid Inhibits Invasion and Migration and TGF-β-Induced EMT of Lung Cancer Cells Through PI3K/Akt/mTOR Inactivation.[Pubmed: 27177359]|
|Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical cellular phenomenon regulating tumor metastases. In the present study, we investigated whether ginkgolic acid can affect EMT in lung cancer cells and the related underlying mechanism(s) of its actions. We found that Ginkgolic acid C15:1 (GA C15:1) inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in both A549 and H1299 lung cancer cells. GA C15:1 also suppressed the expression of EMT related genes (Fibronectin, Vimentin, N-cadherin, MMP-9, MMP-2, Twist and Snail) and suppressed TGF-β-induced EMT as assessed by reduced expression of mesenchymal markers (Fibronectin, Vimentin, N-cadherin), MMP-9, MMP-2, Twist and Snail. However, GA C15:1 did not affect the expression of various epithelial marker proteins (Occludin and E-cadherin) in both A549 and H1299 cells. TGF-β-induced morphologic changes from epithelial to mesenchymal cells and induction of invasion and migration were reversed by GA C15:1. Finally, GA C15:1 not only abrogated basal PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade, but also reduced TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in lung cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that GA C15:1 suppresses lung cancer invasion and migration through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds to control the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells.|
Fitoterapia. 2008 Jun;79(4):250-4.
|Molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis of Ginkgo biloba.[Pubmed: 18334286 ]|
|In search for molluscicidal active components, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water extracts from Ginkgo sarcotesta were evaluated against the snail Oncomelania hupensis. The bioassay-oriented showed that the activity concentrates in the petroleum ether extract (LD(50) 7.81 ppm). Ginkgolic acids, isolated from the petroleum ether extract, exhibited strong molluscicidal activity (LD(50) 1.49 ppm), gingkgolic acid C15:1 having the strongest molluscicidal activity.|
Aquaculture, 2009, 297(1-4):38-43.
|In vivo assessment of anthelmintic efficacy of ginkgolic acids (C13:0, C15:1) on removal of Pseudodactylogyrus in European eel.[Reference: WebLink]|
|Pseudodactylogyrus is a significant monogenean parasite of the gills of aquacultured European eels, and can cause severe gill pathology. In this study, effects of the crude extracts, fractions and compounds of exopleura of Ginkgo biloba against Pseudodactylogyrus were investigated under in vivo conditions by bio-assay guided isolation method. Four solvents (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) were applied for the extraction of exopleura of G. biloba. Among them, only the petroleum ether extract showed strong activity and therefore, subjected to further separation and purification using various chromatographic techniques. Two compounds showing potent activity were identified by comparing spectral data (IR, NMR, and EI-MS) with literature values to be ginkgolic acid C13:0 and Ginkgolic acid C15:1. They were found to be 100% effective at the concentration of 2.5mg l⁻1 and 6.0mg l⁻1, with ED₅₀ values of 0.72mg l⁻1 and 2.88mg l⁻1, respectively. In the 5-days safety test, ginkgolic acid C13:0 and Ginkgolic acid C15:1 were shown to be safe for healthy juvenile eels when the concentration were up to 10.0 and 18.0mg l⁻1, respectively. The two compounds exhibited potential results and can be explored as plant-derived antiparasitic for the control of Pseudodactylogyrus.|