|Source:||The leaves of Ginkgo biloba L.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Ginkgolide K exerts anti-oxidative stress and neuroprotective effect on ischemic stroke.
2. Ginkgolide K promotes angiogenesis after ischemia stroke through increasing the expression of HIF-1α/VEGF via JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
3. Ginkgolide K promotes astrocyte proliferation and migration after oxygen-glucose deprivation via inducing protective autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway.
4. Ginkgolide K can inhibit PAF-induced platelet aggregation and improve nerve injury after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.
5. Ginkgolide K has potentially anti- Parkinson's disease activity, it can promote the clearance of A53T mutation alpha-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.4606 mL||12.3031 mL||24.6063 mL||49.2126 mL||61.5157 mL|
|5 mM||0.4921 mL||2.4606 mL||4.9213 mL||9.8425 mL||12.3031 mL|
|10 mM||0.2461 mL||1.2303 mL||2.4606 mL||4.9213 mL||6.1516 mL|
|50 mM||0.0492 mL||0.2461 mL||0.4921 mL||0.9843 mL||1.2303 mL|
|100 mM||0.0246 mL||0.123 mL||0.2461 mL||0.4921 mL||0.6152 mL|
Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Jun 8;833:221-229.
|Ginkgolide K promotes angiogenesis in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model via activating JAK2/STAT3 pathway.[Pubmed: 29890157]|
|Ginkgolide K (GK) is a new compound extracted from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba, which has been recognized to exert anti-oxidative stress and neuroprotective effect on ischemic stroke. While whether it plays an enhanced effect on angiogenesis during ischemic stroke remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ginkgolide K on promoting angiogenesis as well as the protective mechanism after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Using the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mouse model, we found that GK (3.5, 7.0, 14.0 mg/kg, i.p., bid., 2 weeks) attenuated neurological impairments, and promoted angiogenesis of injured ipsilateral cortex and striatum after 14 days of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in mice. Further, GK (3.5 mg/kg in vivo, 10 μM in vitro) significantly up-regulated the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in tMCAO mouse brains and in b End3 cells after OGD/R, and GK-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF in b End3 cells could be abolished by JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490. Our results demonstrate that GK promotes angiogenesis after ischemia stroke through increasing the expression of HIF-1α/VEGF via JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which provide an insight into the novel clinical application of GK and its analogs in ischemic stroke therapy in future.|
Eur J Pharmacol. 2018 Aug 5;832:96-103.
|Ginkgolide K promotes astrocyte proliferation and migration after oxygen-glucose deprivation via inducing protective autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway.[Pubmed: 29787772]|
|Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of death around the world. Ginkgolide K (GK) has been used to treat ischemic stroke due to its neuroprotective potential. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of GK in ischemic stroke is still almost blank. In this study, astrocytes were divided into four groups: control group, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) group, OGD + GK group and OGD + GK + Compound C (CC) group. The viability and proliferation of astrocytes were examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, respectively. Transwell migration and wound scratch assays were conducted to evaluate astrocyte migration. The protein expression in astrocytes were determined by western blot assay. We found that GK pretreatment promoted astrocyte proliferation and migration after OGD as shown by the increase in the viability of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein level, the number of EdU positive cells and migrated cells, and the migration distance. GK pretreatment induced autophagy after OGD, as indicated by upregulation of autophagy-related protein 7, Beclin-1 protein and increase of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I, and downregulation of p62 protein. Moreover, GK pretreatment activated the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR)/ULK1 pathway in astrocytes following OGD. Notably, CC treatment blocked the promotory effect of GK on astrocyte proliferation and migration after OGD. Collectively, GK promoted astrocyte proliferation and migration after OGD via inducing protective autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway. Our findings suggested that GK might be a potential agent for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.|
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017 Dec;42(24):4727-4732.
|Effects of ginkgolide K on platelet aggregation activity and neuroprotection.[Pubmed: 29493138]|
|To investigate the antagonism effects of different concentrations of Ginkgolide K(GK) on platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation and neuroprotective effect on cells and animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. GK-containing serum in rabbit was prepared, and the effects of GK-containing serum on PAF-induced platelet aggregation was observed by platelet aggregation assay. The effect of different concentrations of GK on apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) was investigated by Hoechst 33342/PI double staining in OGD/R cell model. The focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model (I/R)was established in rats to detect the effects of GK on neurobehavioral scores and cerebral infarction volume. GK could inhibit PAF-induced platelet aggregation, reverse the apoptosis induced by OGD/R injury and improve the neurobehavioral score and cerebral infarction volume after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats in a dose-dependent manner. GK can inhibit PAF-induced platelet aggregation and improve nerve injury after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.|
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2017 Dec 6.
|Ginkgolide K promotes the clearance of A53T mutation alpha-synuclein in SH-SY5Y cells.[Pubmed: 29214369]|
|Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is associated to Parkinson's disease (PD). The aggregated form of α-syn has potential neurotoxicity. Thus, the clearance of α-syn aggregation is a plausible strategy to delay disease progression of PD. In our study, we found that the treatment of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolide K (GK) reduced cell death, and enhanced cell proliferation in SH-SY5Y cells, which overexpressed A53T mutant α-syn. Surprisingly, GK, but not GB, promoted the clearance of A53T α-syn, which can be abolished by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, indicating that GK-induced autophagy intervened in the clearance of A53T α-syn. However, GK did not affect the NEDD4 that belongs to the ubiquitin ligase in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. Furthermore, GK treatment inhibited the p-NF-kB/p65 and induced the PI3K, BDNF, and PSD-95. Taken together, GK increased the clearance of α-syn, reduced cell death, and triggered complex crosstalk between different signaling pathways. Although our results show a potentially new therapeutic candidate for PD, the details of this mechanism need to be further identified.|
Neurotoxicology. 2012 Jan;33(1):59-69.
|Neuroprotective effect of ginkgolide K on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in PC 12 cells via inhibition of ROS generation and Ca(2+) influx.[Pubmed: 22120026 ]|
|Glutamate is considered to be responsible for the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia disease. [Ca(2+)](i) influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are considered to be involved in glutamate-induced apoptosis process. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of Ginkgolide K in the glutamate-induced rat's adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line (PC 12 cells) and the possible mechanism. Glutamate cytotoxicity in PC 12 cells was accompanied by an increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, as well as Ca(2+) influx, bax/bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 protein and ROS generation, and reduction of cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Moreover, treatment with glutamate alone resulted in decrease activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. However, pretreatment with Ginkgolide K significantly reduced MDA content, LDH release, as well as Ca(2+) influx, cytochrome c release, bax/bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 protein and ROS production, and attenuated the decrease of cells viability and MMP. In addition, Ginkgolide K remarkedly up-regulated SOD and GSH-PX activities. All these findings indicated that Ginkgolide K protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx and ROS production. Therefore, the present study supports the notion that Ginkgolide K may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia disease.|