|Source:||The herbs of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. C. Chen|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Pterostilbene, an active constituent of blueberries, has antioxidant activity, may aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction.
2. Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats showing insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet, increases hepatic glucokinase activity, and uptakes skeletal muscle glucose, seems to be involved in the anti-diabetic effect of this phenolic compound.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||3.9017 mL||19.5084 mL||39.0168 mL||78.0336 mL||97.5419 mL|
|5 mM||0.7803 mL||3.9017 mL||7.8034 mL||15.6067 mL||19.5084 mL|
|10 mM||0.3902 mL||1.9508 mL||3.9017 mL||7.8034 mL||9.7542 mL|
|50 mM||0.078 mL||0.3902 mL||0.7803 mL||1.5607 mL||1.9508 mL|
|100 mM||0.039 mL||0.1951 mL||0.3902 mL||0.7803 mL||0.9754 mL|
In: Lamprecht M, editor. SourceAntioxidants in Sport Nutrition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2015. Chapter 5.
|Well-Known Antioxidants and Newcomers in Sport Nutrition: Coenzyme Q10, Quercetin, Resveratrol, Pterostilbene, Pycnogenol and Astaxanthin.[Pubmed: 26065085]|
|Physical exercise induces an increase in production of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Davies et al. 1982, Borzone et al. 1994, Halliwell and Gutteridge 1999). Current evidence indicates that ROS are the primary reason of exercise-induced disturbances in muscle redox balance. Severe disturbances in redox balance have been shown to promote oxidative injury and muscle fatigue (Reid et al. 1992, O’Neill et al. 1996) and thus impair the exercise performance. There are several potential sources of ROS that can be activated by exercise such as mitochondrial electron transfer chain, in the purine degradation pathway the reaction catalysed by xanthine oxidase, macrophage infiltration and metabolic degradation of catecholamines (Urso and Clarkson 2003, Finaud et al. 2006). The high production of ROS during exercise is also responsible for muscular damage (Aguiló et al. 2007). On the basis of the above-mentioned information, sportsmen have to improve their antioxidant defence systems to overcome the exercise-induced oxidative damage. Over the past few decades, many attempts have been made to improve antioxidant potential and therefore increase physical performance by improving nutrition, training programmes and other related factors. An antioxidant is generally defined as any substance that significantly delays or prevents oxidative damage of a target molecule (Halliwell 2007). The antioxidant defence system of the body consists of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, etc.) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C and E, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and glutathione, etc.) (Deaton and Marlin 2003). There is a cooperative interaction between endogenous antioxidants and dietary antioxidants; therefore, antioxidant supplementation may improve the muscle fibre’s ability to scavenge ROS and protect the exercising muscle against exercise-induced oxidative damage and fatigue. However, antioxidant nutrient deficiency could induce an increased susceptibility to exercise-induced damage and thus leads to impaired exercise performance (Stear et al. 2009). Recently, the problem of whether or not athletes should use antioxidant supplements is an important and highly debated topic. To prevent these hypothetically negative or side effects of physical exercise, supplementation with different types of antioxidants has been used in a great number of studies (Snider et al. 1992, Rokitzki et al. 1994, Reid et al. 1994, Margaritis et al. 1997, Aguiló et al. 2007, Bloomer et al. 2012). In the context of this chapter, information in brief about the well-known and recently used antioxidants such as CoQ10, quercetin, resveratrol, Pterostilbene, pycnogenol and astaxanthine is given. The effects of these antioxidants on exercise performance and exercise-induced oxidative stress are also explained.|
J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015 May 22;149:58-67.
|Spectroscopic study on the interaction of resveratrol and pterostilbene with human serum albumin.[Pubmed: 26048525]|
|The interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with two stilbene compounds, resveratrol and Pterostilbene was investigated using fluorescence, UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling technique. The intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched significantly by resveratrol and Pterostilbene. Analysis of fluorescence quenching data of HSA by the two compounds using Stern-Volmer and modified Stern-Volmer methods showed the formation of ground state complexes of HSA with resveratrol and Pterostilbene. The binding analysis showed that the binding constant for resveratrol as 4.47×106 and 0.299×102M-1s-1 for Pterostilbene revealing the high binding affinity of resveratrol to HSA. The conformational changes of HSA were investigated using synchronous fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The efficiency of energy transfer and the distance between HSA and resveratrol/Pterostilbene were calculated. The binding of resveratrol/Pterostilbene was modeled by molecular docking, which is in accordance with the experimental data.|
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015 May 26.
|Pterostilbene, an Active Constituent of Blueberries, Stimulates Nitric Oxide Production via Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.[Pubmed: 26008990]|
|Endothelial dysfunction, a key process in development of cardiovascular diseases, is largely due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Resveratrol has been reported to stimulate NO production via estrogen receptor α (ERα) activation in endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether two natural methylated analogs of resveratrol, Pterostilbene (Pts) and trans-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene (TMS), similarly to resveratrol, could influence endothelial NO release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In HUVECs exposed to Pts or TMS, NO production and phosphorylation of eNOS, protein kinase B (Akt), and ERα were measured by using a fluorimetric NO assay kit and Western blot analysis, respectively. Dimethylated Pts, but not trimethylated TMS, stimulated dose-dependent NO production via eNOS phosphorylation. Pts also stimulated dose-dependent phosphorylation of Akt, but not of ERα. NO production and eNOS phosphorylation in response to Pts were significantly abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor LY294002, but not by the ERα antagonist ICI182780. Our results suggest that Pts, but not TMS, is capable of inducing eNOS phosphorylation and the subsequent NO release, presumably, by activating PI3K/Akt pathway. The potential efficacy of Pts, an active constituent of blueberries, may aid in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction.|
Food Funct. 2015 Jun 10;6(6):1968-76.
|Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats fed an obesogenic diet: involvement of skeletal muscle and liver.[Pubmed: 25998070]|
|This study aims to determine whether Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats showing insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group and two groups treated with either 15 mg kg(-1) d(-1) (PT15) or 30 mg kg(-1) d(-1) of Pterostilbene (PT30). HOMA-IR was decreased in both Pterostilbene-treated groups, but this reduction was greater in the PT15 group (-45% and -22% respectively vs. the control group). The improvement of glycaemic control was not due to a delipidating effect of Pterostilbene on skeletal muscle. In contrast, GLUT4 protein expression was increased (+58% and +52% vs. the control group), suggesting an improved glucose uptake. The phosphorylated-Akt/total Akt ratio was significantly enhanced in the PT30 group (+25%), and therefore a more efficient translocation of GLUT4 is likely. Additionally, in this group the amount of cardiotrophin-1 was significantly increased (+65%). These data suggest that the effect of Pterostilbene on Akt is mediated by this cytokine. In the liver, glucokinase activity was significantly increased only in the PT15 group (+34%), and no changes were observed in glucose-6-phosphatase activity. The beneficial effect of Pterostilbene on glycaemic control was more evident with the lower dose, probably because in the PT15 group both the muscle and the liver were contributing to this effect, but in the PT30 group only the skeletal muscle was responsible. In conclusion, Pterostilbene improves glycaemic control in rats showing insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. An increase in hepatic glucokinase activity, as well as in skeletal muscle glucose uptake, seems to be involved in the anti-diabetic effect of this phenolic compound.|