1. Nicotine is a potent inhibitor of cardiac A-type K+ channels, with blockade probably due to block of closed and open channels, this action may contribute to the ability of nicotine to affect cardiac electrophysiology and induce arrhythmias.
2. Nicotine has a two-phase effect on osteoblasts,showing as low level of nicotine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of the rabbit osteoblasts while the high level gets the opposite effect, vitamin C can antagonize the inhibitory effect of higher concentration of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in part.
3. Chronic nicotine exposure augments atherosclerosis by enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, which, in turn, activate atherogenic NF-kappaB target genes in the aortic lesions.
4. Nicotine is able to activate mitogenic signalling pathways, which promote cell growth or survival as well as increase chemoresistance of cancer cells, nicotine activates its downstream signalling to interfere with the ubiquitination process and prevent Bcl-2 from being degraded in lung cancer cells, resulting in the increase of chemoresistance.
5. Intramuscular administration of nicotine for 3 weeks can not increase arteriogenesis in ischemic hindlimb of rabbits, but is capable of significantly promoting intramyocardial angiogenesis, it can also accelerate intimal proliferation and thickening of balloon catheter denuding injury iliac artery, so it may contribute to the development of restenosis
Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside(SDG) is a phytoestrogen, estrogens and phytoestrogen from soy have been reported to have mild hypotensive effects, and SDG is a long-acting hypotensive agent, and that the hypotensive effect is mediated through the guanylate cyclase enzyme. SDG has strong antioxidant activity, cardioprotective effects, reduces the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduces the risk of hormone related cancer.
Madecassoside is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, wound-healing, and neuroprotective activities, It may have cardioprotective effects in LPS-mediated through inhibition of ERK, p38, and NF-κB activity, it inhibited the pro-inflammatory mediators, including COX-2 expression, PGE2 production, TNF-αand IL-6 levels and the up-regulation anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10.
Beta-Sitosterol is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds. It has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, and pro- apoptosis activities, it also possesses antipyretic activity, similar to acetylsalicylic acid.
1. Cornin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VEGF signaling axis.
2. Cornin has protective potential against cerebral ischemia injury and its protective effects may be due to amelioration of cerebral mitochondrial function and its antioxidant property.
3. Cornin has antimitotic action on dividing cell.
4. Cornin has cardioprotection against experimental myocardial ischemic injury due to an increase in expression of phospho-CREB and phospho-Akt.