Nicotine is a potent inhibitor of cardiac A-type K+ channels, with blockade probably due to block of closed and open channels, this action may contribute to the ability of nicotine to affect cardiac electrophysiology and induce arrhythmias.Nicotine is able to activate mitogenic signalling pathways, which promote cell growth or survival as well as increase chemoresistance of cancer cells, nicotine activates its downstream signalling to interfere with the ubiquitination process and prevent Bcl-2 from being degraded in lung cancer cells, resulting in the increase of chemoresistance.
Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside(SDG) is a phytoestrogen, estrogens and phytoestrogen from soy have been reported to have mild hypotensive effects, and SDG is a long-acting hypotensive agent, and that the hypotensive effect is mediated through the guanylate cyclase enzyme. SDG has strong antioxidant activity, cardioprotective effects, reduces the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduces the risk of hormone related cancer.
Madecassoside is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, wound-healing, and neuroprotective activities, It may have cardioprotective effects in LPS-mediated through inhibition of ERK, p38, and NF-κB activity, it inhibited the pro-inflammatory mediators, including COX-2 expression, PGE2 production, TNF-αand IL-6 levels and the up-regulation anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10.
Beta-Sitosterol is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds. It has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, and pro- apoptosis activities, it also possesses antipyretic activity, similar to acetylsalicylic acid.
Verbenalin has been reported to exhibit uterine stimulant activity and demonstrated cardioprotection against experimental myocardial ischemic injury and cerebral ischemia injury. Cornin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VEGF signaling axis, it also has antimitotic action on dividing cell.