1. Nicotine is a potent inhibitor of cardiac A-type K+ channels, with blockade probably due to block of closed and open channels, this action may contribute to the ability of nicotine to affect cardiac electrophysiology and induce arrhythmias.
2. Nicotine has a two-phase effect on osteoblasts,showing as low level of nicotine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of the rabbit osteoblasts while the high level gets the opposite effect, vitamin C can antagonize the inhibitory effect of higher concentration of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in part.
3. Chronic nicotine exposure augments atherosclerosis by enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, which, in turn, activate atherogenic NF-kappaB target genes in the aortic lesions.
4. Nicotine is able to activate mitogenic signalling pathways, which promote cell growth or survival as well as increase chemoresistance of cancer cells, nicotine activates its downstream signalling to interfere with the ubiquitination process and prevent Bcl-2 from being degraded in lung cancer cells, resulting in the increase of chemoresistance.
5. Intramuscular administration of nicotine for 3 weeks can not increase arteriogenesis in ischemic hindlimb of rabbits, but is capable of significantly promoting intramyocardial angiogenesis, it can also accelerate intimal proliferation and thickening of balloon catheter denuding injury iliac artery, so it may contribute to the development of restenosis
1. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is an antioxidant, SDG can reduce hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and that this effect is associated with a decrease in serum cholesterol, LDL-C, and lipid peroxidation product and an increase in HDL-C and antioxidant reserve.
2. Synthetic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside at 25 mg/kg b.w., exerts anti hyperglycemic effect by preventing the liver from peroxidation damage through inhibition of ROS level mediated increased level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.
3. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside has renoprotective effects in HFD/STZ-induced DN in rats through correction of hyperglycemia.
4. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside is cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage.
5. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside is a phytoestrogen, estrogens and phytoestrogen from soy have been reported to have mild hypotensive effects, and SDG is a long-acting hypotensive agent, and that the hypotensive effect is mediated through the guanylate cyclase enzyme.
6. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside can induce neovascularization-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in hypercholesterolemic myocardium, SDG treatment reduces ventricular remodeling by neovascularization of the infarcted HC myocardium.
1. Madecassoside has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, it can effectively alleviate inflammatory response on CIA, and anti-inflammatory effects of MA can be attributed, at least partially, to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, including COX-2 expression, PGE2 production, TNF-αand IL-6 levels and the up-regulation anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10.
2. Madecassoside is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, suggests that madecassoside can cause drug-drug interactions via inhibition of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.
3. Madecassoside has significant wound-healing activity and is one of the major reasons for the use of C. ASIATICA herbs in the successful treatment of burn injury, the effect of madecassoside on wound healing may involve several mechanisms including antioxidative activity, collagen synthesis and angiogenesis.
4. Madecassoside has the protective effect on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, this protection ability possibly due to its anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis function and the enhancement of SOD activity.
5. Madecassoside can suppress LPS-induced TNF-αproduction in cardiomyocytes through inhibition of ERK, p38, and NF-κB activity, it may have cardioprotective effects in LPS-mediated .
6. Madecassoside is neuroprotective and may be useful in reducing the damage caused by stroke.
1. Beta-Sitosterol (LD50>3 g/kg i.p. in mice, minimum ulcerogenic dose was 600 mg/kg i.p. in rats) has potent anti-inflammatory activity,similar to hydrocortisone and oxyphenbutazone when administered intraperitoneally; possesses antipyretic activity, similar to acetylsalicylic acid.
2. Beta-Sitosterol shows a potent angiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, it is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds.
3. Beta-Sitosterol can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human solid tumors such as colon and breast cancers, it potently induces apoptosis in U937 cells and induces apoptosis is related to the selective activation of caspase-3 and induction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
1. Cornin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VEGF signaling axis.
2. Cornin has protective potential against cerebral ischemia injury and its protective effects may be due to amelioration of cerebral mitochondrial function and its antioxidant property.