Bakuchiol possesses anti-tumor, cytotoxic, anti-bacterial , and anti-helmenthic properties, it shows DNA polymerase1 inhibiting activity. Bakuchiol has great potential for use in food additives and mouthwash for preventing and treating dental caries.
Monotropein has anti-antiosteoporosis and anti-inflammatory activities, it exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes and can increase osteoblastic bone formation and prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice.
1. Velutin has strong anti-inflammatory activity, it can effectively inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in low micromole levels by inhibiting NF-κB activation and p38 and JNK phosphorylation.
2. Velutin exhibits the strongest effects in reducing both TNF-α and IL-6 dose-dependently in the two type cells, it also strongly inhibits NF-κB activation.
3. Velutin controls HIF-1α activity during PgLPS-activated osteoclastogenesis probably through modulation of the NF-κB pathway, perhaps it could be used therapeutically to prevent bone loss seen in periodontitis.
4. Velutin and betulinic acid can induce apoptosis in tumor cells.
Harpagoside has anti-inflammatory effects, it blocks lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model, and it does not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model, it may lead to a partial prevention of obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating inflammatory responses. Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-κB activation. Harpagoside exerts neuroprotection effect and ameliorates learning and memory deficit appears to be associated, at least in part, with up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content as well as activating its downstream signaling pathways, e.g., MAPK/PI3K pathways.
Vitamin D3 is a form of vitamin D, binds and activates a H305F/H397Y mutant vitamin D receptor (VDR) with EC50 of 300 nM. Supplemental calcium and Vitamin D3 may increase TGFβ1 expression and shift TGFα expression downward from the differentiation to the proliferation zone in the crypts in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients.