1. Tetrahydropalmatine reduces heroin craving and increasing the abstinence rate among heroin-dependent patients.
2. Tetrahydropalmatine depletes neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. L-Tetrahydropalmatine is an inhibitor of D3DR and SR-1A.
1. L-Stepholidine, which has dual actions on dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, attenuates heroin self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement.
2. L-Stepholidine elicits anti-dyskinesia effects via both dopamine (D(2) receptor antagonistic activity) and nondopamine (5-HT(1A) agonistic activity) mechanisms.
1. l-isocorypalmine (l-ICP), l-ICP likely acts as a D1 partial agonist and a D2 antagonist to produce its in vivo effects and may be a promising agent for treatment of cocaine addiction.
2. (-)-Isocorypalmine has significant antifungal activity.