1. Esculentic acid has anti-inflammatory effect.
2. Esculentic acid has protective effects against LPS-induced endotoxic shock may be mediated, at least in part, by regulation the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators, and protein expression of COX-2 in mice.
6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin(Esculetin) has various biological and pharmaceutical properties including anti-edema, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, hepatoprotective, anti-osteoarthritis and anti-rheumatoid arthritis effects. It inhibits lipoxygenases (LOs), p42/44 MAPK activation, PI3-kinase activation, as well as NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation, it exhibits competitive inhibition against the oxidation of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)- alanine by mushroom, the IC50 value of is 43 microM.
1. Sinomenine has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, it can attenuate 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice and the therapeutic mechanism may be related to the reduction of up-regulated colonic TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production caused by TNBS.
2. Sinomenine exerts anti- rheumatoid arthritis action probably through modulating the frequencies of Treg cells and Th17 cells in intestinal lymph nodes and yielding a trafficking of lymphocytes (especially Treg cells) from gut to joint.
3. Sinomenine plays the protective effects through inhibition of microglial inflammation, and the findings also provides a novel therapy to treat ICH induced brain injury.
4. Sinomenine has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase.
5. Sinomenine can prevent galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -treated hepatic failure by suppressing TNF production and/or reactive oxygen generation.
1. Momordin Ic is the active component of Kochiae Fructus, Kochiae Fructus not only inhibits humoral immunity but also influences cellular immunity, and should be recognized as a material for anti-allergic reactions; also, the mode of its anti-pruritogenic activity may be mediated by anti-allergic action.
2. Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid obtained from KF appear to contribute to alleviating the adverse effects of CCl4 treatment by enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense system.
3. Momordin Ic accelerates gastrointestinal transit partially by stimulating synthesis of 5-HT to act through 5-HT(2), possibly 5-HT(2C) and/or 5-HT(2B) receptors, which, in turn, increases synthesis of prostaglandins.
4. Momordin Ic inhibited gastric emptying , is relative to serum glucose and, at least in part, mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and the central nervous system.
5. Momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate, by inducing apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways.
6. Momordin lc and its aglycone, oleanolic acid, have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, they could be active principles for rheumatoid arthritis.
7. Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid 3-O-glucuronide exhibit their hypoglycemic activity by suppressing the transfer of glucose from the stomach to the small intestine and by inhibiting glucose transport at the brush border of the small intestine.
1. Vitexicarpin has shown antitumor, anti-inflammatory,analgesic and immunoregulatory properties.
2. Vitexicarpin exhibits broad cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line panel.
3. Vitexicarpin blocks effects of histamine released from sensitized mast cells possibly by stabilizing the mast cells membrane function.
4. Vitexicarpin can act as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor, it exerts good antiangiogenic effects by inhibiting vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-(VEGF-) induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation on matrigel in a dose-dependent manner.
5. Vitexicarpin can significantly reduce vascular inflammation, through inhibition of ROS-NF-κB pathway in vascular endothelial cells.
6. Vitexicarpin may become a potential leading drug in the therapy of prostate carcinoma.