Protopine acts as a potent inhibitor of thromboxane synthesis and PAF with hepatoprotective, antidepressant, antioxidant, antispasmodic and relaxant properties. Protopine is also a novel microtubule-stabilizing agent, causes mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cell lines. Protopine blocks phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) and also blocks activation of a nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB).
Daidzin is a potent, selective aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2,IC50 = 80 nM) inhibitor, which has antiallergic anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, antithrombotic,and anti-atherosclerotic activities, It has preventive effect on bone loss in ovariectomized rats appears to be due to suppression of bone turnover. A mixture of daidzin and glycitin has anti-obese and anti-diabetic effects.
Curdione has anti-inflammatory, cancer chemopreventive activities, significant anti-platelet aggregation and antithrombotic activities , the inhibitory mechanism of curdione on platelet aggregation may increase cAMP levels and subsequently inhibit intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. plays an important role in the CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of C. aromatica.
Coumarin is an anticoagulant and photoprotective drug; it also has antiulcerogenic activity, which may influence the secretion control mediated by the parasympathetic system. Coumarin is a potent inducer of aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase, has chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1 hepatocarcinogenesis.
Liensinine is a human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) inhibitor and a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor, which can antagonize the ventricular arrhythmias. It exerts remarkable effect against thrombosis and possesses strong effect against platelet aggregation and coagulation.