1. Phyllanthin is widely used as hepatoprotective and antigenotoxic and inhibit function of P-gp.
Fraxetin has dual-antioxidative ,hepatoprotective and antihyperglycemic functions, it shows potent protective effects against CCl4 induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis, has a marked inhibitory effect on S.aureus proliferation. It increased the level of Nrf2/ARE, and HO-1, inhibit the formation of ROS, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and 9, and suppressed the up-regulation of Bax.
Tetrandrine is a calcium channel blocker, which shows antitumor, antifibrotic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity. It suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling transduction, the migration of DU145 and PC-3 cells, EOMA cell growth through the ROS/Akt pathway and inhibited inward rectifying potassium current in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells.
Astragaloside IV can protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury, inhibit adenovirus replication and apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro, has anti-fibrotic effect against systemic sclerosis, and may be useful in ameliorating food-induced metabolic syndrome and membranous nephropathy. It suppresses the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and downregulates matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2, (MMP)-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Sophocarpine has anti-cachectic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. It has significant antivirus effects against coxsackievirus B3 and therapeutic effects for viral myocarditis in clinical, can ameliorate the ischemic injury induced by transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for chronic liver diseases. Sophocarpine inhibited the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, JNK, iNOS, COX-2, p38 MAPK, NF-κB, TLR4, and activated signaling pathway of AMPK.