Cyclovirobuxine D(CVB-D) has vasorelaxant effect, it has been widely used for treatment of cardiac insufficiency and arrhythmias in China, the antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmic potential of this drug might be concerned with prolongation of action potential duration and QT interval. CVB-D can induce autophagy in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line by attenuating the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR , CVB-D-induced autophagy and decrease in cell viability could be blocked by 3-methyladenine, a well-established autophagy inhibitor.
Neferine, a autophagy inducer, which has anti-amnesic, sedative, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, cardioprotective, anti- pulmonary fibrosis,anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. It inhibited ChEs, BACE1, NF-kappaB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, Neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, TG, TNF-alpha and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
Saikosaponin D, a calcium mobilizing agent (SERCA inhibitor), is also an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR),which has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Saikosaponin D protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling; it shows inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation and thereby on iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Fisetin is an antimetastatic,antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant flavonoid, it has beneficial effect on periodontal disease, may via inhibiting MAPK activation and COX-2 expression without affecting cell viability. Fisetin can ameliorate photodamage by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein Kinase/Matrix metalloproteinase pathway and nuclear factor-κB pathways. Fisetin suppresses the accumulation of intracellular lipids by inhibiting GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake through inhibition of the mTOR-C/EBPα signaling in 3T3-L1 cells.
1. Madurensine and doronenine show moderate cytotoxicity on cancerous U-937 cells (IC(50) values: 47.97 and 29.57 M respectively).
2. Madurensine induces autophagy, which in prolonged circumstances may lead to autophagic cell death.