1. Nicotine is a potent inhibitor of cardiac A-type K+ channels, with blockade probably due to block of closed and open channels, this action may contribute to the ability of nicotine to affect cardiac electrophysiology and induce arrhythmias.
2. Nicotine has a two-phase effect on osteoblasts,showing as low level of nicotine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of the rabbit osteoblasts while the high level gets the opposite effect, vitamin C can antagonize the inhibitory effect of higher concentration of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in part.
3. Chronic nicotine exposure augments atherosclerosis by enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, which, in turn, activate atherogenic NF-kappaB target genes in the aortic lesions.
4. Nicotine is able to activate mitogenic signalling pathways, which promote cell growth or survival as well as increase chemoresistance of cancer cells, nicotine activates its downstream signalling to interfere with the ubiquitination process and prevent Bcl-2 from being degraded in lung cancer cells, resulting in the increase of chemoresistance.
5. Intramuscular administration of nicotine for 3 weeks can not increase arteriogenesis in ischemic hindlimb of rabbits, but is capable of significantly promoting intramyocardial angiogenesis, it can also accelerate intimal proliferation and thickening of balloon catheter denuding injury iliac artery, so it may contribute to the development of restenosis
1. Phloretin has antimicrobial activity against the Gram negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 13311.
2. Phloretin manipulates ASK-1-MAPK signal transduction leading to transcription of apoptotic genes.
3. Phloretin at 1-20 uM can stimulate Smac expression and capase-3 activation concurrently with nuclear fragmentation of multi-nucleated osteoclasts, indicating that this compound promotes osteoclast apoptosis.
4. Phloretin is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced osteoclastogenic resorption.
5. Phloretin may potentially be an immunomodulator by impairing the activation and function of DCs and Phloretin-contained fruits may be helpful in the improvement of inflammation and autoimmune diseases.