1.Thevebioside and digitoxin are cardiac glycosides, have cardiac action.
1. Astragaloside may protect against brain contusion and neuronal apoptosis after TBI by attenuating microglia activation in male rats.
2. Astragaloside has several pharmacological actions on cardiovascular system, including positive inotropic, anti-arrhythmia and anti-oxidant activities; it also has anti-apoptotic activity, which may contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes in treating myocarditis with pharmaceutics of Astragalus membranaceus.
3. Astragalosides-induced apoptosis in NB4 cells may be associated with down-regulation of the expression of BCL-2 and NF-κB, finally the relative activity of caspase-3 activated.
The cardiac glycosides digitoxin and digoxin have been used in cardiac diseases for many years, digitoxin also has growth inhibition activity in three human cancer cell line, digitoxin activates pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative signaling cascades and cell cycle arrest. Digitoxin could as a candidate drug for suppressing IL-8-dependent lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF), it can suppress hypersecretion of IL-8 from cultured cystic fibrosis (CF) lung epithelial cells, the specific mechanism is to block phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NF-kappa.Digitoxin actively inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication with a 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 0.05 microM, the inhibitory effects of digitoxin are likely to be introduced at the early stage of HSV-1 replication and the virus release stage.
Digoxin is a classical Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, with selectivity for the α2β3 isoform over the common α1β1 isoform, used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Digoxin and other cardiac glycosides can inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)α synthesis and block tumor growth.
Neritaloside is a cardiac glycoside. Neritaloside exhibits central nervous system depressant activity in mice at a dose of 25 mg/kg.