1. Squalene can significantly suppress colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and crypt multiplicity strengthens the hypothesis that squalene possesses chemopreventive activity against colon carcinogenesis.
2. Squalene is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and has been proposed to inhibit the farnesylation of ras oncoproteins, it can effectively inhibit NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis.
3. Squalene has cardioprotective effect, it exerts an antioxidant effect against isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction by blocking the induction of lipid peroxidation, suggests that its cardioprotective effect may be ascribable to its antioxidant property and membrane stabilizing action.
4. Squalene may be efficacious as a cytoprotectant in cyclophosphamide-induced toxicities.
1. Sweroside possesses strong hepatoprotective effect.
2. Sweroside is a promising osteoporosis therapeutic natural product, has anti-osteoporotic effect on the human MG-63 cells and rat osteoblasts.
3. Sweroside and swertiamarine may have wound healing activity, they also have cytoprotective effects, which may cause a synergism in terms of wound healing activity of Gentian.
4. Sweroside can inhibit potent melanogenesis in melan-a cells at 300uM without cytotoxicity, also decreases tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 protein production in melan a cells, it may be an effective skin-whitening agent through the regulates the expression of MAP kinase and melanogenic enzymes.
5. Sweroside and gentiopicroside suppress Pck1 expression and induce phosphorylation of components in the insulin signalling cascade, demonstrates that they show insulin-mimicking effects on the regulation of Pck1 expression.
1. Fraxin shows free radical scavenging effect at high concentration (0.5 mM) and cell protective effect against H2O2-mediated oxidative stress; it can recovere viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) damaged by H2O2-treatment and can reduce the lipid peroxidation and the internal reactive oxygen species level elevated by H2O2 treatment.
2. Fraxin enhances urate excretion partly by inhibiting mURAT1 or mGLUT9 in kidney of hyperuricemic mice.
1. Morin protects against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in pancreatic β-cells by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
2. Morin exerts the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects against LPS/D-GalN-induced acute liver injury by activating Nrf2 signal pathways and inhibiting NF-κB activation.
3. Morin augments the cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling, which involves the activation of the ERK pathway, thereby protecting C2C12 myoblasts from H2O2-induced oxidative cytotoxicity.
4. Morin exerts significant inhibition activity on α-glucosidase in a reversible mixed-type manner with an IC50 value of (4.48 ± 0.04) uM, it also exhibits inhibition in the generation of advanced glycation end products which was related to the long term complications of diabetes.
5. Morin can be used to prevent bladder cancer, it prevents MMP-9 expression via the inhibition of transcription factors AP-1, Sp-1, and NF-κB, thereby resulting in the inhibition of growth, migration, and invasion of bladder cancer EJ cells.
1. Bilirubin efficiently scavenges peroxyl radicals generated chemically in either homogeneous solution or multilamellar liposomes; in liposomes, bilirubin suppresses the oxidation more than alpha-tocopherol, which is regarded as the best antioxidant of lipid peroxidation.
2. Bilirubin, an antioxidant, is neuroprotective at nanomolar concentrations.
Bilirubin can attenuate vascular endothelial activation and dysfunction.
3. Bilirubin can act as an effective agent to reduce mortality and counteract hypotension elicited by endotoxin through mechanisms involving a decreased NOS2 induction secondary to inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase.
4. Bilirubin is a natural inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, individuals with high-normal or supranormal levels of plasma bilirubin have a lesser incidence of atherosclerosis-related diseases.
5. Bilirubin and glutathione are prominent endogenous antioxidant cytoprotectants.
6. Bilirubin may compromise cellular metabolism and proliferation via induction of ER stress.