1. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and induction of SHP gene expression, suggests that it has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Na+ influx and channel activity; it also inhibits the 5-HT-induced inward peak current (I5-HT) in dose dependent and reversible manner, the half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of ginsenoside Rg2 is 22.3 +/- 4.6 microM, suggests that it might regulate the 5-HT3A receptors that are expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
3. Ginsenoside Rg2 can reduce LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, in a concentration-dependent manner, it may provide direct vascular benefits with inhibition of leukocyte adhesion into vascular wall thereby providing protection against vascular inflammatory disease.
4. Ginsenoside Rg2 protects cells against UVB-induced genotoxicity by increasing DNA repair, in possible association with modulation of protein levels involved in p53 signaling pathway.
5. Ginsenoside Rg2 improves learning and memory through mechanisms related to anti-apoptosis in MID rats, indicates that it may represent a potential neurorestorative treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults.
6. Ginsenoside Rg2 has protective effects against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells.
1. Hirsutanonol or oregonin as an active ingredient composition for treating atopic dermatitis.
2. Hirsutanonol shows significant inhibitory effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in immortalized human breast epithelial MCF10A cells.
3. Hirsutanonol has potent antioxidant activity, it shows significant free radical scavenging activity and exhibits inhibition effect on the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation.
4. Hirsutanonol shows potent cytotoxic activities against murine B16 melanoma cells and human SNU-C1 gastric cancer cells.
5. Hirsutanonol has chemoprotective effect on human lymphocytes DNA.
6. Hirustenone and hirsutanonol show promising anti-filarial activity both in vitro and in vivo studies.
1. Afzelin has antibacterial effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is 31ug/mL.
2. Afzelin has several cellular activities such as DNA-protective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory as well as UV-absorbing activity and may protect human skin from UVB-induced damage by a combination of UV-absorbing and cellular activities.
3. Afzelin has potenial anti-cancer activity against prostate cancer, the activity is due to inhibition of LIM domain kinase 021 expression, it can inhibit the proliferation of LNCaP and PC302cells, and block the cell cycle in the G002phase.
4. Afzelin can attenuate asthma phenotypes is based on reduction of Th2 cytokine via inhibition of GATA-binding protein 3 transcription factor, which is the master regulator of Th2 cytokine differentiation and production.
5. Afzelin may be useful as a protective agent against ultraviolet irradiation, it promotes melanogenesis by occurs through increased MITF gene expression, which is mediated by activation of p38 MAPK.
1. Guajadial B shows cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, it is the most effective having an IC50 value of 150 nM toward A549 cells.
2. Guajadial B acts as a Top1 catalytic inhibitor and delays Top1 poison-mediated DNA damage.
1. Methyl gallate and gallic acid can inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and S. mutans biofilm formation, and may be used to prevent the formation of oral biofilms.
2. Methyl gallate has a dual cyclooxygenase-2/5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity, which might provide the basis for novel anti-inflammatory drugs.
3. Methyl gallate is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of herpes simplex virus in vitro.
4. Methyl gallate has effective antioxidant activity, it is effective in preventing H2O2-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
5. Methyl gallate exhibits potent antitumor activities by inhibiting tumor infiltration of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
6. The combination of methyl gallate or carvacrol with nalidixic acid shows antibacterial activity against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria.