Fumaric acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food; also a product of the urea cycle. Fumaric acid is used in systemic and topical treatment of psoriasis. Fumaric acid attenuates the eotaxin-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblasts by suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling.
Nystose has antioxidant capacity. Nystose and 1-Kestose can modulate the intestinal Microorganisms flora, a high content of kestose and nestose in the diet can cause a decrease in ileal and cecal pH (to 5.42 and 5.49, respectively)of turkeys, which may promote digestion.
1. Specioside has analgesic activity.
2. Specioside has anti-dyspeptic and astringent activities.
3. Specioside has liver stimulating and wound healing activities.
4. Specioside exhibits potent antioxidant activity.
5. Specioside ameliorates oxidative stress and promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Methyl syringate is a specific and selective activator of hTRPA1, can regulate food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression. Methyl syringate has a unique inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production. Methyl syringate could be effective to suppress hypoxia-induced inflammation, it inhibits the hypoxic induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion through TRPA1 activation.
1. (2S,3R)-Ceplignan and (2R,3S)-Ceplignan significantly enhances SERT activity, can used in treatments of neuropsychiatric and digestive disorders.