1. Meliasenin B displays dose-dependent toxicity on HepG2 cells, suggests that it may cause hepatotoxicity.
Palmitic acid induces anxiety-like behavior in mice while increasing amygdala-based serotonin metabolism, it induces down-regulation of APOM expression, is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway. Palmitic acid induces degeneration of myofibrils and modulate apoptosis in rat adult cardiomyocytes. it also shows in vivo antitumor activity in mice. Palmitic acid is CNS mediated via PKC-theta activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity.
Dictamnine shows anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic, and has antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. It has the ability to exert cytotoxicity in human cervix, colon, and oral carcinoma cells, it at higher concentrations(≥100uM) has potential hepatotoxicity because of the cell membrane damage and mitochondrial membrane damage.
Deoxycholic acid is a strong promoter of hepatocarcinogenesis with possible complete carcinogenicity in the liver and promotion potential for tumor development in the small intestine. Loss of deoxycholic acid-induced EGFR/Ras/MAPK pathway function potentiates deoxycholic acid-stimulated FAS-induced hepatocyte cell death via a reduction in the expression of c-FLIP isoforms.
Bavachinin is a novel natural pan-PPAR agonist , it shows stronger activities with PPAR-γ than with PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ (EC50 = 0.74 μmol/l, 4.00 μmol/l and 8.07 μmol/l in 293T cells, respectively). Bavachinin possesses anti-asthma, anti-angiogenic , anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties, it also exhibits glucose-lowering properties without inducing weight gain and hepatotoxicity.