1. Theobromine and theophylline occur in plants used in the preparation of a number of widely consumed drinks, chromosome abnormalities are caused by both theobromine and theophylline in plant cells and in mammalian cells in culture, and both have anti-mitotic activity.
2. Theobromine may form the basis for a new class of antitussive drugs, it can suppress capsaicin-induced cough with no adverse effects, it also can directly inhibit capsaicin-induced sensory nerve depolarization of guinea-pig and human vagus nerve suggestive of an inhibitory effect on afferent nerve activation.
3. Theobromine, caffeine, and xanthine have a quenching effect on the production of hydroxyl radicals, as well as on oxidative DNA breakage by hydroxyl radicals, they have antioxidants and also capable of prooxidant action.
4. Theobromine may have therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy, by reducing kidney ECM accumulation in diabetic.
5. Theobromine independently increased serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.16 mmol/L.
1. Atractylenolide-I has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-6 production; ameliorates sepsis syndrome,liver and kidney functions by reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and LPS.
2. Atractylenolide-I significantly sensitizes the response of MyD88(+) EOC cells to paclitaxel by blocking MD-2-mediated TLR4/MyD88 signaling.
3. Atractylenolide I has pro-oxidant and cytotoxic activities in human promyeloleukemic HL-60 cells, it may work via Cu,Zn-SOD inhibition in HL-60 cells to induce apoptosis and bring about cytotoxicity.
4. Atractylenolide I has significant antitumor activity in lung carcinoma cells, and the possible mechanism of action may be related to apoptosis induced by atractylenolide I via a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.
1. Benzoylecgonine causes oxidative stress.
2. Benzoylecgonine and oxytocin increase myometrial contractility, while atosiban and ritodrine induce myometrial relaxation.
3. Benzoylecgonine, validated methodologies from matrices other than blood that can be obtained in the autopsy room would be useful to the forensic toxicologist in the evaluation of a specific forensic case.
1. Theaflavin-3-gallate and theaflavin-3'-gallate, act as prooxidants and induce oxidative stress, with carcinoma cells more sensitive than normal fibroblasts.
1. Alpha-pinene inhibits early root growth and causes oxidative damage in root tissue through enhanced generation of ROS, as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, disruption of membrane integrity and elevated antioxidant enzyme levels.
2. Alpha-pinene inhibits the nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B induced by LPS in THP-1 cells, and this effect is partly due to the upregulation of I kappa B alpha expression.