D-Pinitol is a safe nutrient to reduce calorie consumption when supplementing with creatine. It exerts anti-inflammatory, insulin-like activities; and inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow stromal cells and macrophage cells, which in turn protect bone loss from ovariectomy. It inhibits the activation of p38, JNK, and NF-κB, the expression of p53, Bcl-2, Bax and NF-kB proteins, and reduces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, c-Src kinase activity.
1. Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) inhibits migration of the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA; it offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers.
2. Cannabidiolic acid displays significantly greater potency at inhibiting vomiting in shrews and nausea in rats, and at enhancing 5-HT(1A) receptor activation, an action that accounts for its ability to attenuate conditioned gaping in rats.
3. Cannabidiolic acid selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity with an IC(50) value around 2 microM, has 9-fold higher selectivity than COX-1 inhibition.
4. Cannabidiolic acid and cannabidiol have inhibitory actions on the intestines of S. murinus that are not neuronallymediated or mediated via CB1 or CB2 receptors.
1. Gypenosides (Gyp, Stevenleaf) induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cells through the up-regulation of Bax and Bak, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade.
2. Gypenosides induce ER stress and production of reactive oxygen species and Ca 2+ , change the ratio of Bcl-2 and Bax, followed by the dysfunction of mitochondria, cause cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 before leading to apoptosis, these results provide information towards an understanding of the mechanisms by which Gyp induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human tongue cancer cells.
3. Gypenosides can inhibit invasion and migration of human tongue SCC4 cells by down-regulating proteins associated with these processes, resulting in reduced metastasis.
4. Gypenosides imply their remarkable preventative and therapeutic potential in treatment of neurological diseases involving glutamate and oxidative stress.
5. The extensive antioxidant effect of gypenosides may be valuable to the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as atherosclerosis, liver disease and inflammation.
Norisoboldine produces anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatoid arthritis effects, it produces the analgesic effect in inflammatory pain by a mechanism related to the adenosine system. Norisoboldine alleviated joint destruction in AIA rats by reducing RANKL, IL-6, PGE2, and MMP-13 expression via the p38/ERK/AKT/AP-1 pathway, it decreased forskolin-evoked cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in mouse spinal cord neuronal cultures through the adenosine A1 receptor.
Silymarin possesses hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. It is an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent, has been shown to exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of both cell proliferation and migration. Silymarin induces apoptosis primarily through a p53-dependent pathway involving Bcl-2/Bax, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. It inhibits PGE2 -induced cell migration through inhibition of EP2 signaling pathways (G protein dependent PKA-CREB and G protein-independent Src-STAT3).