|CFN90516||Aristolochic acid C
1. Aristolochic acid(AA) is a powerful nephrotoxic and carcinogenic substance with an extremely short latency period, not only in animals but also in humans, in particular, the highly similar metabolic pathway of activation and resultant DNA adducts of AA allows the extrapolation of carcinogenesis data from laboratory animals to the human situation; therefore, all products containing botanicals known to or suspected of containing AA should be banned from the market world wide.
|CFN90783||Aristolochic acid D
1. Chinese-herb nephropathy (CHN) is a rapidly progressive renal fibrosis associated with the intake of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi) containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids .
1. Artemetin has anti-inflammatory activity.
2. Artemetin protects endothelial function by acting as antioxidant and antiapoptotic agent and through the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt.
3. Intravenous injection of Artemetin (0.75 mg/kg) significantly reduces the hypertensive response to angiotensin I while increases the average length of bradykinin-induced hypotension.
1. Artemisinic acid shows antibacterial activity.
2. Artemisinic acid is a major precursor of artemisinin (an antimalaric compound), isolated as the active principles of the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L.
1. Artesunate is an artemisinin derivative effective against multidrug resistant malaria.
2. Artesunate has anti-inflammatory activity, can prevent neuroinflammation in BV2 microglia by interfering with NF-κB and p38 MAPK signalling.
3. Artesunate has the potential to breach the testis-blood barrier and cause toxicity to male germ cells which may have implications in male reproductive toxicity.
4. Artesunate reverses the immunosuppression from Colon26 and RKO colorectal cancer cells by decreasing TGF-β1 and IL-10, it is probably one of the anti-tumor mechanisms of Artesunate.
1. Ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels.
2. Resistance induced by treatment of exogenous Ascorbic acid in pepino exposed to chilling stress.
3. Ascorbic acid solution may improve anemic conditions and may be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia without any negative impact, while 10 mg/l in drinking water seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity.
4. Ascorbic acid alone was sufficient to induce osteoblast differentiation from suspension MNCs; 30-90 μg/mL of ascorbic acid was found to be the optimal concentration. Ascorbic acid can be used as a nutritional supplement for cellular therapy of bone-related disease.
1. Asiatic acid shows an antihyperlipidemic effect in diabetes.
2. Asiatic acid inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its potential usage in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.
3. Asiatic acid improved metabolic, may be associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and recovering regulation of eNOS/iNOS expression.
4. Asiatic acid inhibits the expression NDR1/2 kinase and promotes the stability of p21WAF1/CIP1 protein through attenuating NDR1/2 dependent phosphorylation of p21WAF1/CIP1 in HepG2 cells.
1. Asiaticoside might be a new preventive agent of ALI in the clinical setting, suppressed inflammatory responses in LPS-induced ALI through inhibition of the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα.
2. Asiaticoside significantly decreased the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix, inhibited TGF-beta expression and the post-stenting intima-media membrane hyperplasia, reduced the endothelial cell damage by effectively up-regulate the expression of Smad7 protein.
1.Asperglaucide shows some nematocidal property against M. incognita .
1. Asperosaponin VI has antioxidant activity.
2. Akebia saponin D (ASD) exerts strong cytotoxicity against human and murine leukemia cells.
3. Akebia saponin D (ASD) may exert apoptosis-inducing activity via induction of apoptosis through activation chiefly via the nitric oxide and apoptosis-related p53 and Bax gene expression.