1. 6-Gingerol has been known to possess anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic activities, it stimulates apoptosis through upregulation of NAG-1 and G1 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1, multiple mechanisms appear to be involved in 6-gingerol action, including protein degradation as well as β-catenin, PKCε, and GSK-3β pathways.
2. 6-Gingerol and 6-shogaol may both exert anti-invasive activity against hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, inhibition of the MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathways and NF-κB and STAT3 activities to suppress expression of MMP-2/-9 and uPA and block angiogenesis, and that 6-shogaol could further regulate urokinase-type plasminogen activity.
3. 6-Gingerol can repress quorum sensing (QS)-induced genes, specifically those related to the production of virulence factors, inducing exoprotease, rhamnolipid, and pyocyanin.
4. 6-Gingerol has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, it induces genotoxicity probably by oxidative stress; lysosomal and mitochondrial damage were observed in 6-gingerol-induced toxicity.
5. 6-Gingerol has anti-adipogenic activity , can effectively suppress adipogenesis and that it exerts its role mainly through the significant down-regulation of PPARγ and C/EBPα and subsequently inhibits FAS and aP2 expression, also inhibit differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by attenuating the Akt/GSK3β pathway.
1. 6-Hydroxykaempferol is a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase compared to L-DOPA, it shows also high antioxidant activities.
1. 6-Hydroxykaempferol 3,6-di-O-glucoside and 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6,7-tri-O-glucoside can inhibit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, they also show weak inhibitory effects on the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)- induced platelet aggregation.
1. 6-Methoxyluteolin has antioxidant activity.
2. 6-Methoxyluteolin is a potent inhibitor of histamine release and calcium influx via down-regulation of the FcεRI α chain.
1. 6'-O-beta-D-Glucosylgentiopicroside may have antifungal activity.
1. 6-Prenylnaringenin is an isomer of the potent phytoestrogen, 8-prenylnaringenin.
2. 6-Prenylnaringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin have anti-cancer potential , dose-dependent reduction of cellular proliferation of human PC-3 prostate cancer and UO.31 renal carcinoma cells upon treatment
3. 6-Prenylnaringenin can inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1μg/ear) in mice, it also exhibits inhibitory effects on skin-tumor promotion in anin vivo two-stagemouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]- anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and with TPA as promoter.
4. 6-Prenylnaringenin exhibits both mixed and non-competitive inhibitory characteristics against tyrosinase, tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of melanin and other pigments via the oxidation of l-tyrosine.
1. 6-Shogaol enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in renal carcinoma Caki cells via ROS-mediated cytochrome c release and down-regulation of c-FLIP(L) expression.
2. 6-Shogaol impairs cancer development and lung metastasis by inhibiting the secretion of CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in tumor-associated dendritic cells.
3. 6-Shogaol shows significant neuroprotective effects in vivo in transient global ischemia via the inhibition of microglia.
4. 6-Shogaol can inhibit the growth of human pancreatic tumors and sensitize them to gemcitabine by suppressing of TLR4/NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways linked to tumorigenesis.
5. 6-Shogaol reduces the inflammatory response and protected the femoral cartilage from damage produced in a CFA monoarthritic model of the knee joint of rats.
6. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in relation to caspase activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, affects the ER stress signaling by regulating unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor PERK and its downstream target eIF2α.
1. 3'4'7-Trihydroxyflavone can markedly inhibit the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastic differentiation from mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), it inhibits osteoclastogenesis via nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1).
1. 7-O-Methyleriodictyol inhibits the maximum contractions induced by acetylcholine or oxytocin .